Departmental Papers (SPP)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

January 1999


This paper documents how one Department of Recreation in a large city underwent a planned change effort which transformed some 200 site managers into active community organizers. Based on the philosophy of a very dynamic new commissioner (a former community organizer), city employees enhanced local civic participation and forged a partnership between the public and private sectors as well as with local residents. The paper presents the guiding philosophy, implementation steps, an assessment of the impact of the change, and a discussion of the potential of such a process which can be adopted nationwide.


Copyright Haworth Press. Reprinted from Journal of Community Practice, Volume 6, Issue 4, 1999, pages 57-77.
The authors assert their right to include this material in the ScholarlyCommons@Penn.


recreation, urban change, community organizing, partnerships, planned change



Date Posted: 22 November 2006