Departmental Papers (SPP)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

January 2001


Several policy alternatives exist to protect environmental quality. Environmental nonprofits advocating for better environmental quality must often choose what policies to advocate and support. This article argues that environmental nonprofits will do best by designing strategies of advocacy contingent on the net costs to the stakeholders and paying attention to the crowding-out effects of monetary incentives. It investigates the advocacy policies of 50 environmental organizations in Canada. The findings of this survey show that although reduction of net costs is espoused, market-based policies are not generally advocated, while a greater emphasis is put on regulatory approaches combined with moral suasion through the dissemination of information and educational programs.


Postprint version. Published in International Journal of Social Economics, Volume 28, Issue 8, 2001, pages 648-666.
Publisher URL:

Note: At the time of publication, author Femida Handy was affiliated with York University. Currently, January 2007, she is a faculty member of the School of Social Policy and Practice at the University of Pennsylvania.


green issues, non-profit organizations, fund raising, strategy, canada



Date Posted: 11 January 2007

This document has been peer reviewed.