Recordings of read speech in Korean and English were made by native South Koreans and Korean Americans of varying generational status ("second-generation" American-born or "1.5-generation" foreign-born) and analyzed for differences in usage of VOT and fundamental frequency to contrast production of Korean lenis and aspirated stops and affricates. Results show that second-generation Korean speakers, especially females, are not showing the collapse of VOT contrast found in the other two groups, which is part of a sound change nearing completion in Seoul. Female second-generation speakers are also not using f0 to differentiate between the stops to the extent that first- and 1.5-generation speakers are. It is concluded that second generation Korean Americans are not participating in the sound change that their same-age peers in Seoul are, and that second generation and 1.5 generation Korean Americans do not pattern together phonologically as a "heritage speaker" category. The analysis makes a stronger case for applying new models of language acquisition, speech production, and identity formation to heritage language speakers that differ from those used for bilingual speakers.
"VOT merger and f0 contrast in Heritage Korean in California,"
University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: Vol. 25
, Article 9.
Available at: https://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol25/iss1/9