Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



As the largest sovereign wealth fund (SWF) in the world, the Norwegian SWF’s efforts to move in a more sustainable direction are often followed by other institutional investors. This chapter examines how the Norwegian SWF (officially, the Government Pension Fund – Global, or GPFG) has evolved into a responsible investor, balancing ethics, environment, social, and governance (ESG) risks with returns. The focus is mainly on its actions to address financial climate change risks. If the GPFG continues to evolve toward sustainable investment and acts on the latest International Energy Agency report that calls, among other things, for an end to all new fossil fuel production, it can serve as a good model for other institutional investors to deal with the challenge of climate change while remaining profitable.


Sovereign wealth fund, ESG investment, climate change

JEL Code

H5, Q51, Q54, Q56

Working Paper Number


Copyright/Permission Statement

All findings, interpretations, and conclusions of this paper represent the views of the author and not those of the Wharton School or the Pension Research Council. © 2021 Pension Research Council of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved.

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Economics Commons



Date Posted: 18 August 2021