Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



A topic of long-standing discussion in Japan has been how to equitably merge the retirement plans for civil servants and private employees, which in the past have been managed separately. Recent legislation sought to unify social security pension schemes for all employees, by extending the coverage of the Japanese Employees’ Pension Insurance Scheme which covers private employees to include civil servants as well. We describe how Japanese social security pension schemes have evolved, the forces driving the merger of these plans, and what future prospects may be.


The published version of this Working Paper may be found in the 2009 publication: The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems.

Working Paper Number


Copyright/Permission Statement

© 2008 Pension Research Council of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved.


Opinions and errors are solely those of the author and not of the institutions with whom the author is affiliated.

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Economics Commons



Date Posted: 07 August 2019