Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

5-1-2009

Publication Source

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

Volume

33

Issue

5

Start Page

906

Last Page

915

DOI

10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00912.x

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We conducted a population-based case-control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun.

METHODS: An incidence density sampled case-control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables.

RESULTS: After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault.

CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches to reducing gun violence.

Copyright/Permission Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May ; 33(5): 906–915., which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1530-0277.2009.00912.x This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Keywords

Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholic Beverages, Case-Control Studies, Commerce, Female, Firearms, Humans, Male, Risk, Socioeconomic Factors, Violence

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Date Posted: 08 July 2016

This document has been peer reviewed.