Date of this Version
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Despite a common view that women are better at self-care, there is very little evidence to support or challenge this perspective in the heart failure (HF) population.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are cross-cultural gender differences in self-reported HF self-care and to describe gender differences in the determinants of HF self-care.
Design, setting, and participants
A secondary analysis was completed of cross-sectional study data collected on 2082 adults with chronic HF from the United States, Australia and Thailand.
Comparisons were made between men and women regarding self-care maintenance, management and confidence as assessed by the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index, as well as the proportion of subjects engaged in adequate self-care. Multivariate comparisons were made to determine if gender explained sufficient variance in HF self-care and the likelihood of reporting adequate self-care, controlling for nine model covariates.
The sample was comprised of 1306 men and 776 women. Most (73.5%) had systolic or mixed systolic and diastolic HF and 45% had New York Heart Association class III or IV HF. Although small and clinically insignificant gender differences were found in self-care maintenance, gender was not a determinant of any aspect of HF self-care in multivariate models. Married women were 37% less likely to report adequate self-care maintenance than unmarried women. Comorbidities only influenced the HF self-care of men. Being newly diagnosed with HF also primarily affected men. Patients with diastolic HF (predominantly women) had poorer self-care maintenance and less confidence in self-care.
Differences in HF self-care are attributable to factors other than gender; however, there are several gender-specific determinants of HF self-care that help identify patients at risk for practicing poor self-care.
NOTICE: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in International Journal of Nursing Studies. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms, may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2009, 46(11), 1485-1495, doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.04.004
heart failure, gender, self-care, adherence
Lee, C. S., Riegel, B., Driscoll, A., Suwanno, J., Moser, D. K., Lennie, T. A., Dickson, V. V., Cameron, J., & Worall-Carter, L. (2009). Gender Diferences in Heart Failure Self-Care: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46 (11), 1485-1495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.04.004
Date Posted: 01 June 2016
This document has been peer reviewed.