Neuroethics Publications

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

10-28-2015

Publication Source

PLOS One

Volume

10

Issue

10

Start Page

e0138217

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0138217

Abstract

What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing.

Copyright/Permission Statement

© 2015 Avants et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Keywords

Brain development, Twin studies, Cocaine, Children, Social stratification, Twins, Magnetic resonance imaging, Prefrontal cortex

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Date Posted: 16 March 2016

This document has been peer reviewed.