Neuroethics Publications

Neurocognitive enhancement: what can we do and what should we do?

Martha J. Farah, University of Pennsylvania
Judy Illes, Stanford University
Robert Cook-Deegan, Duke University
Howard Gardner, Harvard University
Eric Kandel, Columbia University
Patricia King, Georgetown University
Eric Parens, The Hastings Center
Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge
Paul R. Wolpe, University of Pennsylvania

Document Type Journal Article

Postprint version. Published in Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Volume 5, Issue 5, May 2004, pages 421-425.
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Our growing ability to alter brain function can be used to enhance the mental processes of normal individuals as well as to treat mental dysfunction in people who are ill. The prospect of neurocognitive enhancement raises many issues about what is safe, fair and otherwise morally acceptable. This article resulted from a meeting on neurocognitive enhancement that was held by the authors. Our goal is to review the state of the art in neurocognitive enhancement, its attendant social and ethical problems, and the ways in which society can address these problems.


Date Posted: 04 April 2006

This document has been peer reviewed.