Departmental Papers (MSE)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

February 2006


The fabrication of true three-dimensional (3D) microstructures both rapidly and economically over a large area with negligible defects is attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, multi-beam interference lithography is one of the promising techniques that can mass-produce polymeric 3D photonic crystals defect-free over a large area. This review discusses the relationship between beam geometry and the symmetry of the interference patterns, the lithographic process, and various types of photoresist systems, including thick films of negative-tone and positive-tone photoresists, organic-inorganic hybrids, hydrogels, and holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals.


Postprint version. “This is a preprint of an article published in Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2006, pages 83-93.”
Publisher URL:


photoresists, interference lithography, microstructures, photochemistry, fabrication



Date Posted: 03 October 2006

This document has been peer reviewed.