Departmental Papers (MEAM)

Document Type

Journal Article

Subject Area


Date of this Version

April 2007


Copyright 2007 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Intelligent Systems, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2007, pages 33-41.

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Researchers have developed and assessed a computer-controlled wheelchair called the Smart Chair. A shared control framework has different levels of autonomy, allowing the human operator complete control of the chair at each level while ensuring the user's safety. The semiautonomous system incorporates deliberative motion plans or controllers, reactive behaviors, and human user inputs. At every instant in time, control inputs from three sources are integrated continuously to provide a safe trajectory to the destination. Experiments with 50 participants demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the benefits of human-robot augmentation in three modes of operation: manual, autonomous, and semiautonomous. This article is part of a special issue on Interacting with Autonomy.


experimental tests, shared motion control, smart wheelchairs, user evaluations, wheelchair navigation



Date Posted: 23 April 2007

This document has been peer reviewed.