Departmental Papers (MEAM)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version



Suggested Citation:
Grogan, J.M., Rotkina, L. and Bau, H.H. (2011). In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of colloid aggregation and growth dynamics. Physical Review E 83, 061405.

© 2011 American Physical Society


We report on real-time observations of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles using a custom-made liquid cell that allows for in situ electron microscopy. Process kinetics and fractal dimension of the aggregates are consistent with three-dimensional cluster-cluster diffusion-limited aggregation, even for large aggregates, for which confinement effects are expected. This apparent paradox was resolved through in situ observations of the interactions between individual particles as well as clusters at various stages of the aggregation process that yielded the large aggregates. The liquid cell described herein facilitates real-time observations of various processes in liquid media with the high resolution of the electron microscope.



Date Posted: 23 June 2011

This document has been peer reviewed.