Date of this Version
United Nations development goals have consistently placed a high priority on the quality of education—and of learning. This has led to substantive increases in international development assistance to education, and also to broader attention, worldwide, to the importance of children’s learning. Yet, such goals are mainly normative: they tend to be averages across nations, with relatively limited attention to variations within countries. This review provides an analysis of the scientific tensions in understanding learning among poor and marginalized populations: those at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP). While international agencies such as UNESCO and OECD often invoke these populations as the “target” of their investments and assessments, serious debates continue around the empirical science involved in both research and policy. The present analysis concludes that the UN post-2015 development goals must take into account the critical need to focus on learning among the poor in order to adequately address social and economic inequalities.
This is a pre-publication version. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11125-014-9328-8
learning, low- and middle-income countries, poor and marginalized populations, learning outcomes, constraints, comparability, education policy
Wagner, Daniel A. and Castillo, Nathan M., "Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability and Policy in Developing Countries" (2014). Journal Articles (Literacy.org). 29.
Curriculum and Instruction Commons, Educational Administration and Supervision Commons, Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research Commons, Educational Methods Commons, Education Economics Commons, International and Comparative Education Commons, Language and Literacy Education Commons
Date Posted:03 July 2018
This document has been peer reviewed.