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PublicationJohn Knox and the Role of the Commanality(2007-10-01) Van Vliet, JanineSince his death in 1572, the works of Scottish reformer John Knox have been analyzed unceasingly by historians. Historiography has deemed Knox an inflammatory, tactless preacher who is best remembered for his work The First Blast Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558), in which women are characterized as unfit to rule.1 To concentrate on the gender issue alone in his First Blast, however, is merely to skim the surface of Knox’s true intentions. His ideas regarding gender were neither new nor radical; in fact, even his enemies agreed with him.What was unique was Knox’s solution to the problem of ungodly, Catholic monarchs. Instead of depending passively on the will of God, he believed that the nobility and commonalty had a responsibility to depose of such rulers.Although he was not alone in his political theories to strip power away from the monarchs, Knox’s theory is by far the most radical in its insistence that the commonalty of a nation is to assist the nobility in determining its political and religious proceedings. In examining the works of Knox in the context of his contemporaries’, as well as its immediate effects on the Scottish Reformation of 1559-1560, it will become evident that Knox’s proposed involvement of the commonalty was unheard of at the time, provoking a visibly reduced role of the monarch and new ideas regarding egalitarianism. PublicationUnity in Identity, Disunity in Execution: Expressions of French National Identity at the 1937 Paris World's Fair(2007-10-01) Feldman, PeterFrance, the world would eagerly await the latest rendition of the annual World’s Fair, a massive celebration which basked in the rapid advancements that signaled the transition into modernity. The event would tout the cultural, national, and technological advents of each participating country, but would importantly While each visiting country was commissioned a limited space to construct its own national pavilion, France, as the host country, was not limited to a single expression or parcel of real estate. Instead, French fair planners constructed multiple pavilions not only for every region, but also for “every conceivable French trade and industry,”1 thereby raising an important question: how could France project a single, unified image of national identity amidst the seemingly infinite number of possibilities? By examining three examples of French architecture at the Fair—the Palais de Chaillot, the Regional Pavilions, and the Pavilion de Temps Nouveaux—a consistent theme emerges: the idealized intentions of the architects and planners were significantly undermined by the execution of each building. As a result, France projected an image of itself that was far more authentic: a scattered, diverse country still unsure of its identity during the inter-war period. PublicationGermanic Poetry Surrounding the Third Crusade: The Role of Lyric in Portraying Crusade Attitude(2007-10-01) Kane, EllieWhen Jerusalem fell in the Battle of Hattin in 1187, a drastic shift occurred in Crusading mentality that had repercussions throughout Europe. Since the call of the First Crusade in 1095 by Pope Urban II, the fundamental motivator and goal of the movement was Jerusalem.AcrossWestern Europe, mobilization occurred in kings and peasants alike. Enthusiasm swept through the classes, leading to massive, disorganized marches to the Holy Land with the purpose of liberating it from the Infidels. Crusading ostensibly allowed men from all walks of life a chance to absolve their sins. In practicality, it was a way to amass fortune and reputation in the East. Its motivation straddled the love of God and the love of worldly pursuits found in the East. The drive of the men, and at times women, involved was astonishing when one takes into account the hardships they faced along the way: starvation, thirst and formidable enemies. In 1099, Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders- it was moment of ultimate triumph. The former citizens of the city were slaughtered and the Crusaders believed they had achieved what God asked of them. The Second Crusade, called in 1145 in response to the fall of Edessa, shared much of the same enthusiasm as the first one did, building from the memory of that success. PublicationFaculty Interviews(2007-10-01)This issue of the Review will introduce a new feature to the journal, the faculty interview. These interviews offer an opportunity for undergraduates to receive scholarly insight and advice from prominent members of the faculty as well as serve to facilitate further interaction between students and professors. Dr. Zuckerman and Dr. Kropp were selected for the inaugural installment of this feature because each specializes in areas of history that directly relate to the student essays published in this issue. The interviews were conducted separately, but each professor answered the same questions proposed by the Editorial Board. PublicationFrom the Editor(2007-10-01) Omansky, Rachel J.The Editorial Board is pleased to present the fifteenth volume of the Penn History Review, the Ivy League’s oldest undergraduate history journal. The Review continues to publish outstanding undergraduate papers based on original primary research. The Board is proud to feature scholarship that maintains our tradition of insightful and diverse historiography. These papers span not only centuries and geographic regions, but also across disciplines in the study of history. The authors published in this issue approach their historical inquiries through political, religious, and social perspectives, and in arenas from medieval Europe to modern Argentina. PublicationRock Subversivo: The Response of Argentina's Youth to El Proceso(2007-10-01) Diz, AugustinInArgentina today, the memory of the military government that ruled between the years 1976 and 1983 remains a sharp one. The question of reparations for those who disappeared as a consequence of state or guerrilla terrorism remains hotly debated. “Repression” and “oppression” have strong connotations linked to the violence of the military regime. It was a sad time inArgentine history, one that many have not been able to forget. The period was marked by sharp social divisions, disorder, and moral confusion; indeed, many Argentines were afraid to articulate their views out of fear of retribution from either the state or armed guerillas groups. In spite of this fear,Argentines needed to find ways to express themselves. If nothing else, they needed a medium through which to voice their innermost concerns and anxieties, political or otherwise. Artistic and cultural expressions, such as literature or music, offered such a medium and, as a result, they soon became highly politicized. In the realm of music, rock became one of the most important modes of expression for certain sectors of Argentine society. Most notably, young people found in rock music a way to come together and create an identity that was their own and that opposed the moral tenets of those in power. What follows is an analysis of the role played by Argentine rock among those people who grew up under the military government that ruled between the years 1976 and 1983.