Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 From Satellite Cells is Required for Efficient Muscle Growth and Regeneration

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Departmental Papers (Dental)
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Extracellular matrix; Myoblast migration; Satellite cells
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Smith, Lucas R.
Kok, Hui Jean
Zhang, Boshi
Chung, Du
Spradlin, Ray A.
Rakoczy, Kyla D.
Lei, Hanqin

Background/Aims: Cell migration and extracellular matrix remodeling underlie normal mammalian development and growth as well as pathologic tumor invasion. Skeletal muscle is no exception, where satellite cell migration replenishes nuclear content in damaged tissue and extracellular matrix reforms during regeneration. A key set of enzymes that regulate these processes are matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)s. The collagenase MMP-13 is transiently upregulated during muscle regeneration, but its contribution to damage resolution is unknown. The purpose of this work was to examine the importance of MMP-13 in muscle regeneration and growth in vivo and to delineate a satellite cell specific role for this collagenase. Methods: Mice with total and satellite cell specific Mmp13 deletion were utilized to determine the importance of MMP-13 for postnatal growth, regeneration after acute injury, and in chronic injury from a genetic cross with dystrophic (mdx) mice. We also evaluated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediated hypertrophy in the presence and absence of MMP-13. We employed live-cell imaging and 3D migration measurements on primary myoblasts obtained from these animals. Outcome measures included muscle morphology and function. Results: Under basal conditions, Mmp13-/- mice did not exhibit histological or functional deficits in muscle. However, following acute injury, regeneration was impaired at 11 and 14 days post injury. Muscle hypertrophy caused by increased IGF-1 was blunted with minimal satellite cell incorporation in the absence of MMP-13. Mmp13-/- primary myoblasts displayed reduced migratory capacity in 2D and 3D, while maintaining normal proliferation and differentiation. Satellite cell specific deletion of MMP-13 recapitulated the effects of global MMP-13 ablation on muscle regeneration, growth and myoblast movement. Conclusion: These results show that satellite cells provide an essential autocrine source of MMP-13, which not only regulates their migration, but also supports postnatal growth and resolution of acute damage. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Cell Physiol Biochem Press GmbH&Co. KG

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Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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