Differential Requirements for H/ACA Ribonucleoprotein Components in Cell Proliferation and Response to DNA Damage

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Lin, Ping
Mobasher, Maral E.
Hakakian, Yasaman
Kakarla, Veena
Naseem, Anum F.
Ziai, Heliya
Alawi, Faizan

H/ACA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are comprised of four conserved proteins, dyskerin, NHP2, NOP10, and GAR1, and a function-specifying, noncoding H/ACA RNA. H/ACA RNPs contribute to telomerase assembly and stabilization, and posttranscriptional processing of nascent ribosomal RNA and spliceosomal RNA. However, very little is known about the coordinated action of the four proteins in other biologic processes. As described herein, we observed a differential requirement for the proteins in cell proliferation and identified a possible reliance for these factors in regulation of specific DNA damage biomarkers. In particular, GAR1 expression was upregulated following exposure to all forms of genotoxic stress tested. In contrast, levels of the other proteins were either reduced or unaffected. Only GAR1 showed an altered subcellular localization with a shift from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm after ultraviolet-C irradiation and doxorubicin treatments. Transient siRNA-mediated depletion of GAR1 and dyskerin arrested cell proliferation, whereas loss of either NHP2 or NOP10 had no effect. Finally, loss of dyskerin, GAR1, NHP2, and NOP10, respectively, limited the accumulation of DNA damage biomarkers. However, the individual responses were dependent upon the specific type of damage incurred. In general, loss of GAR1 had the most suppressive effect on the biomarkers tested. Since the specific responses to genotoxic stress, the contribution of each protein to cell proliferation, and the activation of DNA damage biomarkers were not equivalent, this suggests the possibility that at least some of the proteins, most notably GAR1, may potentially function independently of their respective roles within H/ACA RNP complexes.

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Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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