Center for Human Modeling and Simulation

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

January 1996


Copyright Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reprinted from Presence, Volume 5, Issue 4, 1996, pages 393-401.


A simple inverse kinematics procedure is proposed for a seven degree of freedom model of the human arm. Two schemes are used to provide an additional constraint leading to closed-form analytical equations with an upper bound of two or four solutions. Multiple solutions can be evaluated on the basis of their proximity from the rest angles or the previous configuration of the arm. Empirical results demonstrate that the procedure is well suited for real-time applications.



Date Posted: 01 August 2007

This document has been peer reviewed.