Center for Human Modeling and Simulation

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version



Copyright Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reprinted from Presence, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 1996, pages 359-356.
Publisher URL:


We present a model for simulating casualties in virtual environments for real-time medical training. It allows a user to choose diagnostic and therapeutic actions to carry out on a simulated casualty who will manifest appropriate physiological, behavioral, and physical responses. Currently, the user or a "stealth instructor" can specify one or more injuries that the casualty has sustained. The model responds by continuously determining the state of the casualty, responding appropriately to medical assessment and treatment procedures. So far, we have modeled four medical conditions and over twenty procedures. The model has been designed to handle the addition of other injuries and medical procedures.


casualty models, patient simulation, medical procedures, computer simulation, virtual environments



Date Posted: 24 July 2007

This document has been peer reviewed.