Center for Human Modeling and Simulation


Real-time Inverse Kinematics Techniques for Anthropomorphic Limbs

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

August 2000


Postprint version. Published in Graphical Models, Volume 62, Issue 5, 2000, pages 353-388.
Publisher URL:


In this paper we develop a set of inverse kinematics algorithms suitable for an anthropomorphic arm or leg. We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to solve generalized inverse kinematics problems including position, orientation, and aiming constraints. Our combination of analytical and numerical methods results in faster and more reliable algorithms than conventional inverse Jacobian and optimization-based techniques. Additionally, unlike conventional numerical algorithms, our methods allow the user to interactively explore all possible solutions using an intuitive set of parameters that define the redundancy of the system.


inverse kinematics; real-time IK; human arm kinematics; analytical algorithms

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Date Posted: 10 December 2008