Center for Human Modeling and Simulation

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

August 1999


Postprint version. Copyright ACM, 1999. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Communications of the ACM, Volume 42, Issue 8, August 1999, pages 64-73.
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The computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for interactive applications have improved dramatically in recent years. Real-time virtual humans show increasingly complex features along the dimensions of appearance, function, time, autonomy, and individuality. The virtual human architecture we’ve been developing at the University of Pennsylvania is representative of an emerging generation of such architectures and includes low-level motor skills, a mid-level parallel automata controller, and a high-level conceptual representation for driving virtual humans through complex tasks. The architecture—called Jack— provides a level of abstraction generic enough to encompass natural-language instruction representation as well as direct links from those instructions to animation control.



Date Posted: 01 August 2008