GSE Publications

Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



Has the elementary and secondary teaching force changed in recent years? And, if so, how? Have the types and kinds of individuals going into teaching changed? Have the demographic characteristics of those working in classrooms altered? To answer these questions we embarked on an exploratory research project to try to discover what trends and changes have, or have not, occurred in the teaching force over the past few decades. We were surprised by what we found. We discovered that the teaching force has been, and is, greatly changing; yet, even the most dramatic trends appear to have been little noticed by researchers, policy makers, and the public.


Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, E. (2012). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. CPRE Working Paper (#WP-01). Philadlephia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.



Date Posted: 05 August 2013