GSE Faculty Research

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

September 2004


Women continue to receive fewer doctoral and first-professional degrees than men, even though women receive more bachelor’s degrees. The underrepresentation of women holds even after allowing for time to complete an advanced degree. For example, women received 55% of the bachelor’s degrees that were awarded in 1994–95 but only 44% of the doctoral degrees and 45% of the first-professional degrees that were awarded five years later in 1999-00 (NCES,2002).1 African Americans also represented smaller shares of doctoral and first-professional degree recipients in 1999-00 than of bachelor’s degree recipients in 1994–95 (5.0% and 6.9% versus 7.5%, NCES, 2002). Hispanics represented a smaller share of doctoral degree recipients (2.9%) but a comparable share of first-professional degrees (4.8%) in 1999-00 than of bachelor’s degrees in 1994–95 (4.7%, NCES, 2002).


Copyright The Ohio State University. Reprinted from Journal of Higher Education, Volume 75, Issue 5, September/October 2004, pages 487-527. This material is posted here with the permission of the Ohio State University Press. Content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv or website without the copyright holder's written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Note: At the time of publication, Laura W. Perna was affiliated with the University of Maryland, College Park. Currently (August 2006), she is a faculty member at the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania.



Date Posted: 07 August 2006

This document has been peer reviewed.