GSE Publications

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

August 2002


This report has a state-by-state analysis of the new 1999-2002 Schools and Staffing Survey data on the percentage of core academic secondary school classes taught by a teacher without major or minor in the subject. The report documents the huge and growing problem of disproportionate numbers of classes in high-poverty and high-minority secondary schools being taught by out-of-field teachers. The report also includes a list of recommendations which states, districts and schools can act on immediately to help reduce out-of-field teaching.


Reprinted from Education Trust, August 2002, 14 pages.

The author, Dr. Richard M. Ingersoll, asserts his right to include this material in ScholarlyCommons@Penn.



Date Posted: 24 October 2007