Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version



Reprinted with permission. Reprinted in China: An International Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2007, pages 309-334.
Publisher URL:


A central task of educational researchers has been to uncover factors that improve student academic achievement. Research in both developed and developing nations during the past few decades has analysed the links between educational outcomes and school physical resources, teacher quality and children's demographic and family background. Importantly, research on teacher and school effects in developing countries has focused on factors such as human capital, economic resources and physical infrastructure, the so-called input factors in the "black box" production function model of school outcomes. Fewer studies have focused on the "softer" classroom process factors that might be seen as important mechanisms of the production function, such as teaching style, the quality of teacher-student interactions and student academic engagement.



Date Posted: 17 November 2008

This document has been peer reviewed.