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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    A Little Bit Pregnant: Modeling How the Accurate Detection of Pregnancy Can Improve HIV Prevention Trials
    (2008-01-01) Schreiber, Courtney A; Sammel, Mary; Hillier, Sharon L; Barnhart, Kurt T
    The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies contributes to the methodological challenges of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials. In this paper, the authors discuss the incidence of pregnancy, including chemical pregnancy, and how the different methods of pregnancy diagnosis could affect the statistical power and calculated outcomes of HIV prevention trials. Study sample size inflation factors are estimated to aid in the design of clinical trials.The authors used published data of women attempting pregnancy as well as data from HPTN 055 ( to estimate the percentage of early study discontinuation that would be associated with 3 diagnostic methods for pregnancy in a hypothetical clinical trial. They classified chemical pregnancies as false-positive pregnancy tests and showed the sample size adjustment that would be necessary in clinical trial design because of the early discontinuations associated with pregnancy. There is a greater than 3-fold difference in the number of falsely positive pregnancy tests that will be detected, depending upon the diagnostic method used. The number of incident pregnancies may render HIV prevention trial sample sizes inadequate by as much as 50%. Pregnancy prevention and precise pregnancy diagnosis are critical to the statistical power and integrity of HIV prevention trials.
  • Publication
    An Exploratory, Randomized, Crossover MRI Study of Microbicide Delivery with the SILCS Diaphragm Compared to a Vaginal Applicator
    (2013-01-01) Pentlicky, Sara; Rosen, Mark; Coffey, Patricia S; Kilbourne-Brook, M.; Shaunik, A.; Schreiber, Courtney A; Barnhart, Kurt
    Background—Microbicide gels studied for HIV prevention often are delivered via a single-use vaginal applicator. Using a contraceptive diaphragm such as the SILCS diaphragm for gel delivery could have advantages, including lower cost and additional pregnancy prevention. Study Design—We performed an exploratory, nonblinded, randomized, crossover study among healthy, sexually active, nonpregnant women. Using BufferGel®, we evaluated three microbicide delivery methods for gel distribution and retention: SILCS single-sided gel delivery, SILCS double-sided gel delivery and a vaginal applicator (without SILCS). Magnetic resonance images were taken at baseline, after gel insertion, and immediately and 6 h after simulated intercourse. Three women completed all gel delivery methods described in this article. Results—Magnetic resonance imaging analysis indicated similar gel spread in the vagina among all three methods. SILCS single-sided gel application resulted in the most consistent longitudinal coverage; SILCS double-sided gel application was the most consistent in the transverse dimension. Conclusions—Gel coverage was similar with all three methods. These results suggest that the SILCS microbicide delivery system is comparable to vaginal applicators for delivery of gel products intravaginally.
  • Publication
    Mifepristone Pretreatment for the Medical Management of Early Pregnancy Loss
    (2018-07-01) Schreiber, Courtney A; Creinin, Mitchell D; Sonalkar, Sarita; Atrio, Jessica; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Barnhart, Kurt T
    BACKGROUND Medical management of early pregnancy loss is an alternative to uterine aspira-tion, but standard medical treatment with misoprostol commonly results in treat-ment failure. We compared the efficacy and safety of pretreatment with mifepris-tone followed by treatment with misoprostol with the efficacy and safety of misoprostol use alone for the management of early pregnancy loss. METHODS We randomly assigned 300 women who had an anembryonic gestation or in whom embryonic or fetal death was confirmed to receive pretreatment with 200 mg of mifepristone, administered orally, followed by 800 µg of misoprostol, adminis-tered vaginally (mifepristone-pretreatment group), or 800 µg of misoprostol alone, administered vaginally (misoprostol-alone group). Participants returned 1 to 4 days after misoprostol use for evaluation, including ultrasound examination, by an in-vestigator who was unaware of the treatment-group assignments. Women in whom the gestational sac was not expelled were offered expectant management, a second dose of misoprostol, or uterine aspiration. We followed all participants for 30 days after randomization. Our primary outcome was gestational sac expulsion with one dose of misoprostol by the first follow-up visit and no additional intervention within 30 days after treatment. RESULTS Complete expulsion after one dose of misoprostol occurred in 124 of 148 women (83.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76.8 to 89.3) in the mifepristone-pretreat-ment group and in 100 of 149 women (67.1%; 95% CI, 59.0 to 74.6) in the miso-prostol-alone group (relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.43). Uterine aspiration was performed less frequently in the mifepristone-pretreatment group than in the misoprostol-alone group (8.8% vs. 23.5%; relative risk, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.68). Bleeding that resulted in blood transfusion occurred in 2.0% of the women in the mifepristone-pretreatment group and in 0.7% of the women in the misoprostol-alone group (P = 0.31); pelvic infection was diagnosed in 1.3% of the women in each group. CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment with mifepristone followed by treatment with misoprostol resulted in a higher likelihood of successful management of first-trimester pregnancy loss than treatment with misoprostol alone. (Funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; PreFaiR number, NCT02012491.)
  • Publication
    Mucosal Integrity and Inflammatory Markers in the Female Lower Genital Tract as Potential Screening Tools for Vaginal Microbicides
    (2011-01-01) Su, H. Irene; Schreiber, Courtney A; Fay, Courtney; Parry, Sam; Elovitz, Michael A; Zhang, Jian; Shaunik, Alka; Barnhart, Kurt
    Background—In the female genital tract, vaginal colposcopy, endometrial mucosal integrity and inflammatory mediators are potential in vivo biomarkers of microbicide and contraceptive safety. Study Design—A randomized, blinded crossover trial of 18 subjects comparing effects of Gynol II (putative inflammatory gel), HEC (putative inert gel) and no gel exposure on endometrial and vaginal epithelial integrity and endometrial and vaginal inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, TNF-α, IL-1RA, IL-10, SLPI). Results—Gynol II was associated with more vaginal lesions. No endometrial disruptions were observed across conditions. In the vagina, RANTES (p=0.055) and IL-6 (p=0.04) were higher after HEC exposure than at baseline. In the endometrium, IL-1β (p=0.003) and IL-8 (p=0.025) were lower after Gynol II cycles than after no gel. Conclusions—Gynol II and HEC may modulate inflammatory markers in the vagina and endometrium. How these changes relate to infection susceptibility warrants further study.
  • Publication
    Effects of Long-Term Use of Nonoxynol-9 on Vaginal Flora
    (2006-01-01) Schreiber, Courtney A; Meyn, Leslie A; Creinen, Mitchell D; Barnhart, Kurt T; Hillier, Sharon L
    OBJECTIVE—Products containing nonoxynol-9 have been used as spermicidal contraceptives for many years, but limited data have been published describing the long-term effects of nonoxynol-9 use on the vaginal microbial ecosystem. This longitudinal study was conducted to examine the effects of nonoxynol-9 on the vaginal ecology. METHODS—Vaginal swabs were obtained from 235 women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial before initiation of use of 1 of 5 different formulations of nonoxynol-9 for contraception, and up to 3 more samples were gathered over 7 months of use. The swab samples were evaluated in a single laboratory. The prevalence of several constituents of the normal vaginal flora was evaluated. The associations between nonoxynol-9 dosage, formulation, average product use per week, and number of sex acts per week were calculated. RESULTS—The changes in prevalence of vaginal microbes after nonoxynol-9 use were minimal for each of the different nonoxynol-9 formulations. However, when both nonoxynol-9 concentration and number of product uses are taken into account, nonoxynol-9 did have dose-dependant effects on the increased prevalence of anaerobic gram-negative rods (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–5.3), H2O2-negative lactobacilli (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.1), and bacterial vaginosis (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7). CONCLUSION—This study demonstrated that most nonoxynol-9 users experienced minimal disruptions in their vaginal ecology. There were no differences between the different formulations evaluated with respect to changes in vaginal microflora. However, independent of the nonoxynol-9 formulation, there was a dose-dependent effect with increased exposure to nonoxynol-9 on the risk of bacterial vaginosis and its associated flora.
  • Publication
    Tear Osmolarity and Dry Eye Symptoms in Women Using Oral Contraception and Contact Lenses
    (2013-01-01) Chen, Sarah P; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Pistilli, Maxwell; Schreiber, Courtney A; Bunya, Vatinee Y
    Purpose—To examine the relationship between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use, contact lens wear, and dry eye signs and symptoms in healthy young females. Methods—Fifty-two women using OCPs and forty-five women not using any form of hormonal contraception were enrolled. Medical, menstrual, and contact lens histories were obtained and dry eye symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. Tear osmolarity testing was performed using the TearLab™ Osmolarity System. Results—Mean age of all subjects was 26.0 ± 3.7 years. There were no significant differences in any of the measurements between the follicular and luteal phases. While SANDE scores were significantly higher in subjects with OCP and recent contact lens use (p<0.01), there were no significant differences in OSDI and tear osmolarity amongst the same subject groups. Subjects who reported both OCP and recent contact lens use had significantly higher OSDI and SANDE scores (p=0.015 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions—There were no differences between the phases of the menstrual cycle. Tear osmolarity was not affected by OCP or contact lens use in young females. However, the combination of OCP use and contact lens wear may increase the severity of dry eye symptoms.
  • Publication
    Satisfaction with Intrauterine Device Insertion Procedure Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women in a Clinical Trial
    (2018-08-01) Akers, Aletha Y; Harding, Jennifer; Schreiber, Courtney A; Perriera, Lisa K; Sonalkar, Sarita; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate satisfaction with intrauterine device (IUD) insertion procedures among adolescent and young adult women. METHODS: This secondary analysis of data from a multisite, single-blind, sham-controlled randomized trial of women having a levonorgestrel 13.5-mg IUD inserted enrolled participants from March 2015 through July 2016 at three family planning clinics in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eligible participants were 14-22 years of age, nulliparous, not pregnant, and English-speaking. Randomization was computer-generated allocation in block sizes of four to a 1% lidocaine paracervical or sham block. Only patients were blinded. Satisfaction was measured with three items that assessed overall satisfaction with the procedure, whether participants would recommend the IUD to a friend, and the perception that the IUD was worth the discomfort. Predictors included demographics, sexual and reproductive history, pain after IUD insertion, and treatment group. RESULTS: Ninety-five women enrolled; 93 (97.9%) were included in the analysis. Forty-five (47.4%) were white, 34 (36.0%) were black, 62 (66.0%) were privately insured, and 75 (79.0%) had used contraception previously. Most (n=73 [76.8%]) reported high overall satisfaction with the procedure, 64 (67.4%) would recommend an IUD to a friend, and 79 (83.2%) perceived the IUD was worth the discomfort. The odds of reporting high overall satisfaction were lower among adolescents compared with young adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.07, 95% CI 0.008-0.68); those who never had a gynecologic examination compared with those who had (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.99); and decreased as pain score increased (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99). Higher pain scores were negatively correlated with the odds of recommending an IUD to a friend and perceiving the IUD was worth the discomfort. CONCLUSION: Adolescent and young adult women report high levels of satisfaction after the IUD insertion procedure. Young age, lack of experience with gynecologic examinations, and high pain were inversely related to satisfaction.
  • Publication
    Six-month Expulsion of Postplacental Copper Intrauterine Devices Placed After Vaginal Delivery
    (2018-08-01) Sonalkar, Sarita; Gurney, Elizabeth P; McAllister, Arden; Schreiber, Courtney A; Sammel, Mary D
    Background Immediate placement of an intrauterine device after vaginal delivery is safe and convenient, but longitudinal data describing clinical outcomes have been limited. Objective We sought to determine the proportion of TCu380A (copper) intrauterine devices expelled, partially expelled, malpositioned, and retained, as well as contraceptive use by 6 months postpartum, and determine risk factors for expulsion and partial expulsion. Study Design In this prospective, observational study, women who received a postplacental TCu380A intrauterine device at vaginal delivery were enrolled postpartum. Participants returned for clinical follow-up at 6 weeks, and for a research visit with a pelvic exam and ultrasound at 6 months. We recorded intrauterine device outcomes and 6-month contraceptive use. Partial expulsion was defined as an intrauterine device protruding from the external cervical os, or a transvaginal ultrasound showing the distal end of the intrauterine device below the internal os of the cervix. Multinomial logistic regression models identified risk factors associated with expulsion and partial expulsion by 6 months. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was used to assess the ability of a string check to predict the correct placement of a postplacental intrauterine device. The primary outcome was the proportion of intrauterine devices expelled at 6 months. Results We enrolled 200 women. Of 162 participants with follow-up data at 6 months, 13 (8.0%; 95% confidence interval, 4.7–13.4%) experienced complete expulsion and 26 (16.0%; 95% confidence interval, 11.1–22.6%) partial expulsion. Of 25 malpositioned intrauterine devices (15.4%; 95% confidence interval, 10.2–21.9%), 14 were not at the fundus (8.6%; 95% confidence interval, 5.2–14.1%) and 11 were rotated within the uterus (6.8%; 95% confidence interval, 3.8–11.9%). Multinomial logistic regression modeling indicated that higher parity (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–3.50; P = .008) was associated with expulsion. Provider specialty (obstetrics vs family medicine; odds ratio, 5.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–23.59; P = .03) and gestational weight gain (normal vs excess; odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.90–43.82; P = .004) were associated with partial expulsion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive method use at 6 months was 80.9% (95% confidence interval, 74.0–86.6%). At 6 weeks postpartum, 35 of 149 (23.5%; 95% confidence interval, 16.9–31.1%) participants had no intrauterine device strings visible. Sensitivity of a string check to detect an incorrectly positioned intrauterine device was 36.2%, and specificity of the string check to predict a correctly positioned intrauterine device was 84.5%. This corresponds to an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.5. Conclusion This prospective assessment of postplacental TCu380A intrauterine device placement, with ultrasound to confirm device position, finds a complete intrauterine device expulsion proportion of 8.0% at 6 months. The association of increasing parity with expulsion is consistent with prior research. The clinical significance of covariates associated with partial expulsion (provider specialty and gestational weight gain) is unclear. Due to the observational study design, any associations cannot imply causality. The proportion of partially expelled and malpositioned intrauterine devices was high, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.5 indicates that a string check is a poor test for assessing device position. Women considering a postplacental intrauterine device should be counseled about the risk of position abnormalities, as well as the possibility of nonvisible strings, which may complicate clinical follow-up. The clinical significance of intrauterine device position abnormalities is unknown; future research should evaluate the influence of malposition and partial expulsion on contraceptive effectiveness and side effects.