Now showing 1 - 10 of 236
PublicationSingle-walled carbon nanotubes in superacid: X-ray and calorimetric evidence for partly ordered H2SO4(2005-07-01) Zhou, Wei; Fischer, John E; Heiney, P. A; Fan, H.; Davis, Virginia A; Pasquali, M.; Smalley, Richard ELiquid anhydrous sulfuric acid forms a partly ordered structure in the presence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). X-ray scattering from aligned fibers immersed in acid shows the formation of molecular shells wrapped around SWNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry of SWNT-acid suspensions exhibits concentration-dependent supercooling/melting behavior, confirming that the partly ordered molecules are a new phase. We propose that charge transfer between nanotube π electrons and highly oxidizing superacid is responsible for the unique partly ordered structure. PublicationStructure and properties of C60@SWNT(2001-11-26) Smith, Brian W; Russo, Richard M; Chikkannanavar, Satishkumar B; Stercel, Ferenc; Luzzi, David EOur recent achievement of high-yield C60@SWNT synthesis facilitates characterization by various techniques, including selected area electron diffraction (SAD) and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained SAD patterns show that interior C60 molecules sit on a simple 1-D lattice having a parameter of 1.00 nm. Simulated SAD patterns and real-space measurements both support this determination and do not indicate a lattice with a more complex basis, e.g. a dimer basis. Empty and bulk-filled SWNTs (22%, 56%, and 90% yields), each subjected to identical processing steps, were examined by room temperature Raman spectroscopy. Systematic differences are seen between the spectra of filled and unfilled SWNTs, particularly with respect to the G- and RBM-bands of the nanotubes. We present a possible explanation for this behavior. PublicationHydrogenation of Mg film and Mg nanoblade array on Ti coated Si substrates(2008-10-23) He, Yuping; Zhao, Yiping; Huang, Liwei; Wang, Howard; Composto, Russell JThe hydrogenation of Mg film and Mg nanoblade array fabricated on Ti coated Si substrates has been studied and compared. The nanoblades start to absorb hydrogen at a temperature between 250 and 300 degrees C, which is much lower than 350 degrees C for Mg film. However, the saturated total hydrogen uptake in nanoblades is less than half of that in the film, resulting from MgO formation by air exposure. The nanoblade morphology with large surface area and small hydrogen diffusion length, and the catalytic effect of Ti layer, are two main reasons for the nanoblade hydrogenation behavior. PublicationOne-particle-thick, Solvent-free, Course-grained Model for Biological and Biomimetic Fluid Membranes(2010-07-12) Yuan, Hongyan; Huang, Changjin; Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Zhang, SulinBiological membranes are involved in numerous intriguing biophysical and biological cellular phenomena of different length scales, ranging from nanoscale raft formation, vesiculation, to microscale shape transformations. With extended length and time scales as compared to atomistic simulations, solvent-free coarse-grained membrane models have been exploited in mesoscopic membrane simulations. In this study, we present a one-particle-thick fluid membrane model, where each particle represents a cluster of lipid molecules. The model features an anisotropic interparticle pair potential with the interaction strength weighed by the relative particle orientations. With the anisotropic pair potential, particles can robustly self-assemble into fluid membranes with experimentally relevant bending rigidity. Despite its simple mathematical form, the model is highly tunable. Three potential parameters separately and effectively control diffusivity, bending rigidity, and spontaneous curvature of the model membrane. As demonstrated by selected examples, our model can naturally simulate dynamics of phase separation in multicomponent membranes and the topological change of fluid vesicles. PublicationDextran grafted silicon substrates : preparation, characterization and biomedical applications(2003-04-21) Ombelli, Michela; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell JBiodevices used in the cardiovascular system suffer from well-known problems associated with surface-induced gas embolism and thrombosis. In order to improve the biocompatibility of these devices, biomimetic coatings show good promise. We recently synthesized a coating layer of dextran, a relatively simple and well characterized neutral polysaccharide, with the purpose of mimicking the cells' glycocalyx layer, that prevents non-specific cells-protein interactions. Systematic physical chemical characterization was performed on coatings obtained both from commonly used polydisperse dextrans and low-dispersity dextrans in the 1-100 kDalton molecular weight range. We have combined standard surface analysis techniques, such as ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and AFM, with less traditional vibrational spectroscopy techniques in the characterization of our biomimetic coatings. FTIR, micro-FTIR and micro-Raman spectroscopies were utilized to correlate the conformational and molecular aspects of the grafted poly- and monodisperse dextran chains to their attractive biological properties. PublicationTemperature-Sensitive Nanocapsules for Controlled Drug Release Caused by Magnetically Triggered Structural Disruption(2008-12-01) Liu, Ting-Yu; Liu, Kun-Ho; Liu, Dean-Mo; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, I-WeiSelf-assembled nanocapsules containing a hydrophilic core and a crosslinked yet thermosensitive shell have been successfully prepared using poly(ethylene-oxide)-poly(propylene-oxide)-poly(ethylene-oxide) block copolymers, 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate, gelatin, and 1-ethyl-3-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide. The core is further rendered magnetic by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles via internal precipitation to enable externally controlled actuation under magnetic induction. The spherical nanocapsules exhibit a hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition at a characteristic but tunable temperature reaching 40ºC, triggering a size contraction and shrinkage of the core. The core content experiences very little leakage at 25ºC, has a half life about 5 h at 45ºC, but bursts out within a few minutes under magnetic heating due to iron oxide coarsening and core/shell disruption. Such burst-like response may be utilized for controlled drug release as illustrated here using a model drug Vitamin B12. PublicationCarbide-Derived Carbons: Effect of Pore Size on Hydrogen Uptake and Heat of Adsorption(2006-10-27) Yushin, Gleb; Dash, Ranjan; Jagiello, Jacek; Fischer, John E; Gogotsi, YuryCryoadsorption is a promising method of enhancing gravimetric and volumetric onboard H2 storage capacity for future transportation needs. Inexpensive carbide-derived carbons (CDCs), produced by chlorination of metal carbides, have up to 80 % open-pore volume with tunable pore size and specific surface area (SSA). Tuning the carbon structure and pore size with high sensitivity by using different starting carbides and chlorination temperatures allows rational design of carbon materials with enhanced C-H2 interaction and thus increased H2 storage capacity. A systematic experimental investigation of a large number of CDCs with controlled pore size distributions and SSAs shows how smaller pores increase both the heat of adsorption and the total volume of adsorbed H2. It has been demonstrated that increasing the average heat of H2 adsorption above 6.6 kJ mol-1 substantially enhances H2 uptake at 1 atm (1 atm = 101 325 Pa) and -196 °C. The heats of adsorption up to 11 kJ mol-1 exceed values reported for metal-organic framework compounds and carbon nanotubes. PublicationProcessing of single wall carbon nanotubes and implications for filling experiments(2001-11-26) Chikkannanavar, Satishkumar B; Smith, Brian W; Russo, Richard M; Stercel, Ferenc; Luzzi, David ESingle wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been processed in different schemes to get clean material for use in various filling experiments. The SWNTs synthesized by different methods require different processing schemes, and this is presumably due to heterogeneous nature of the various contaminants present along with the carbon nanotubes. For the pulsed laser synthesized SWNTs, a combination of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid treatment gives best results and the purified SWNTs give best ever filling fraction for fullerene, C60 of ~90%. The processing improves the surface cleanliness of SWNTs, in turn giving greater access for the target molecules, and hence the higher filling fraction. For the carbon arc produced SWNTs, air oxidation followed by treatment with nitric acid has been found to work best and the processed SWNTs have been used for filling experiments with metal chlorides. Both these processing schemes still leave a small fraction of catalyst impurities in the final material, thus the material quality of filled material and hence its properties depend on the processed material used for the filling experiments. PublicationFabricating Three-Dimensional Polymeric Photonic Structures by Multi-Beam Interference Lithography(2006-02-17) Moon, Jun Hyuk; Ford, Jamie; Yang, ShuThe fabrication of true three-dimensional (3D) microstructures both rapidly and economically over a large area with negligible defects is attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, multi-beam interference lithography is one of the promising techniques that can mass-produce polymeric 3D photonic crystals defect-free over a large area. This review discusses the relationship between beam geometry and the symmetry of the interference patterns, the lithographic process, and various types of photoresist systems, including thick films of negative-tone and positive-tone photoresists, organic-inorganic hybrids, hydrogels, and holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. PublicationEffect of Heating Schedule on the Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of alpha-SiAlON--Cause and Solution(2002-07-01) Zenotchkine, Misha; Shuba, Roman; Chen, I-WeiThe effect of heating schedule on microstructure and fracture resistance has been investigated in single-phase Nd-, Y-, and Yb-α-SiAlON. Such effect is strongly system dependent, reflecting the strong influence of phase stability on α-SiAON nucleation and the amount of transient/residual liquid during processing. The addition of 1% of α-SiAlON seeds to the starting powders nearly completely obliterates such effect, while it simultaneously improves microstructure homogeneity and fracture resistance. SENB toughness of 7 MPa∙m1/2 and peak R-curve toughness of ~11 MPa∙m1/2 have been obtained for seeded Y-α-SiAlON ceramics using heating rates from 1oC/min to 25oC/min.