Graduate School of Education

At the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, we are here for change. We’re here because we believe in the power of education to build communities, bridge barriers, improve lives, and heal society. Here, we convene an ambitious and diverse community of leaders and pioneers, connecting them to one another and to a world that will benefit from their work. We equip them with immersive, real-world-based learning and research opportunities that bring them results. And we mobilize them to fulfill the promise of education in the classrooms, boardrooms, governments, and learning settings where true innovation and real transformation become possible. We offer vibrant array of high-quality master’s and doctoral degree programs.

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Review of R.V. Kail, Jr. and J.W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the Development of Memory and Cognition, and D.G. Bobrow and A. Collins (Eds.), Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science
    (1978) Wagner, Daniel A
    The use of narrative and other prose forms as a tool for investigating mental processes is not new. Psychologists such as Jean Piaget and F.C. Bartlett both used stories in research on complex cognitive skills in children and adults. However, with the advent of Ebbinghaus' monumental work on memory using "non-sense syllables," theoretical psychology turned away from the use of meaningful material. With the use of nonsense syllables, researchers hoped to isolate the variables of memory and individual content associations. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the study of narrative and memory due to the recognition that narrative taps certain processes that syllables and isolated words do not. In addition, narrative and memory studies have generated interest among those researchers concerned with the applicability of memory studies to educational settings.
  • Publication
    The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A Validation Study
    (1979) Weissman, Arlene Nancy
  • Publication
    Cost-Effectiveness in Evaluation Research
    (1975) Levin, Henry M
  • Publication
    A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Teacher Selection
    (1970) Levin, Henry M
    The purpose of this article is to report some results of applying cost-effectiveness analytic techniques to decisions on teacher recruitment and retention. The data are derived from the U.S. Office of Education's Survey of Equal Opportunity for the school year 1965-66. Evidence relating teacher characteristics to student achievement is combined with data on the costs of obtaining teachers with different characteristics. This evaluation suggests that recruiting and retaining teachers with higher verbal scores is five to ten times as effective per dollar of teacher expenditure in raising achievement scores of students as the strategy of obtaining teachers with more experience. Separate estimates are made for black and for white sixth graders in schools of the metropolitan North.
  • Publication
    "Carpentered World" Hypothesis vs. Piaget: Revisiting the Illusions of Segall, Campbell and Herskovits
    (1979) Wagner, Daniel A; Heald, Karen
    Individual and group differences in susceptibility to various visual illusions have interested psychologists at least since Binet (1895). At present, there appear to be at least two more-or-less competing explanations of the ontogeny of illusion suscpetibility: Piaget's (1969) "Law of Relative Centrations" and Segall, Campell and Herskovits' 91966) "Carpentered World" hypothesis. While these theories sometimes produce similar predications, they may also lead to contradictory ones.
  • Publication
    The Costs to the Nation of Inadequate Education: A Report Prepared for the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate
    (1972-02-01) Levin, Henry M.
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the costs to the nation of the inadequate education of a substantial portion of the population, where an inadequate education for the latter third of the twentieth century was defined as an attainment of less than high school graduation. Using data from the Department of Commerce and other sources in conjunction with extensive research literature from the social sciences, this report obtained the following findings: (1) The failure to attain a minimum of high school completion among the population of males 24 to 34 years of age in 1969 was estimated to cost the nation 237 billion dollars in income over the lifetime of these men; and, 71 billion dollars in foregone government revenues; (2) In contrast, the probable costs of having provided a minimum of high school completion for this group of men was estimated to be about 40 billion dollars; (3) Welfare expenditures attributable to inadequate education are estimated to be about three billion dollars each year and are probably increasing over time; and, (4) The costs to the nation of crime that is related to inadequate education appears to be about three billion dollars a year and rising.
  • Publication
    Evaluation of Educational Media: Some Issues
    (1975) Carnoy, Martin; Levin, Henry M
    This article provides a systematic presentation of the implicit biases of six studies that evaluate the uses, costs, and effectiveness of educational media. The first is called “benefit of the doubt” which tends to accept and utilize very deficient data when they favor the instructional technology over traditional alternatives. The second bias is reflected in the narrowing of the scope of the analysis to those items on the agenda of the sponsoring agency while ignoring other effects.
  • Publication
    Cross-Cultural Salad: A Bit Mixed. Review of Neil Warren, Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology
    (1978) Wagner, Daniel A
    Neil Warren has put together a volume containing contributions from five well-known cross-cultural investigators. According to the foreword, this book was intended to meet "the need for detailed high-level presentations and evaluations of particular areas of enquiry in cross-cultural psychology . . ." (p. ix). And, Warren says, the book was designed primarily for graduate students and "professional peers" who are interested in cross-cultural psychology. the two inferred goals would be: (1) an up-to-date and detailed account of particular research domains and (2) coverage of a variety of topics useful for graduate-level courses. Despite some individual instances of excellence, the volume as a whole fails on both accounts. As the author admits, the volume was delayed so much that more recent chapters by the same investigators (covering much the same research) have already appeared or will soon appear elsewhere. Also, a paucity of only five unrelated contributions leaves the book scattered over a domain so large that only the cross-cultural eclectic would find each chapter of interest.