Departmental Papers (ESE)


Bridging the gap between model-based design and platform-based implementation is one of the critical challenges for embedded software systems. In the context of embedded control systems that interact with an environment, a variety of errors due to quantization, delays, and scheduling policies may generate executable code that does not faithfully implement the model-based design. In this paper, we show that the performance gap between the model-level semantics of linear dynamic controllers, e.g. the proportional- integral-derivative (PID) controllers, and their implementation-level semantics can be rigorously quantified if the controller implementation is executed on a predictable time-triggered architecture. Our technical approach uses lifting techniques for periodic, time-varying linear systems in order to compute the exact error between the model semantics and the execution semantics. Explicitly computing the impact of the implementation on overall system performance allows us to compare and partially order different implementations with various scheduling or timing characteristics.

Document Type

Journal Article

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Date of this Version



Nghiem, T. X.; Pappas, G. J.; Alur, R. & Girard, A. (2012). Time-Triggered Implementations of Dynamic Controllers. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 11(S2), Article 58. doi: 10.1145/2331147.2331168

© ACM, 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, Vol. 11, No. S2, August 2012


control, dynamic controller, time-triggered, implementation, perfor- mance, PID, PI, scheduling



Date Posted: 14 February 2013

This document has been peer reviewed.