Departmental Papers (ESE)


Many producers and consumers of legacy training simulator and game environments are beginning to envision a new era where psycho-socio-physiologic models could be interoperated to enhance their environments' simulation of human agents. This paper explores whether we could embed our behavior modeling framework (described in the companion paper, Part 1) behind a legacy first person shooter 3D game environment to recreate portions of the Black Hawk Down scenario. Section 1 amplifies the interoperability needs and challenges confronting the field, presents the questions that are examined, and describes the test scenario. Sections 2 and 3 review the software and knowledge engineering methodology, respectively, needed to create the system and populate it with bots. Results (Section 4) and discussion (Section 5) reveal that we were able to generate plausible and adaptive recreations of Somalian crowds, militia, women acting as shields, suicide bombers, and more. Also, there are specific lessons learned about ways to advance the field so that such interoperabilities will become more affordable and widespread.

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version



Postprint version. Published in Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Volume 15, Issue 2, April 2006, pages 163-185.
Publisher URL:


human behavior models; culture and emotions; simulator and agent interoperability, composability



Date Posted: 07 September 2007

This document has been peer reviewed.