Assessment of a Small Molecule Synthetic Lignan in Enhancing Oxidative Balance and Decreasing Lipid Accumulation in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelia

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Departmental Papers (Dental)
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Antioxidant; Inflammation; Ketogenesis; LGM2605; Lipid steatosis; Oxidative stress; Retina; Small molecule therapeutics
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Dhingra, Anuradha
Sharp, Rachel C.
Kim, Taewan
Popov, Anatoliy V.
Ying, Gui-Shuang
Pietrofesa, Ralph A.
Park, Kyewon
Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo
Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

Visual function depends on the intimate structural, functional and metabolic interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the neural retina. The daily phagocytosis of the photoreceptor outer segment tips by the overlaying RPE provides essential nutrients for the RPE itself and photoreceptors through intricate metabolic synergy. Age-related retinal changes are often characterized by metabolic dysregulation contributing to increased lipid accumulation and peroxidation as well as the release of proinflammatory cytokines. LGM2605 is a synthetic lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) with free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties demonstrated in diverse in vitro and in vivo inflammatory disease models. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that LGM2605 may be an attractive small-scale therapeutic that protects RPE against inflammation and restores its metabolic capacity under lipid overload. Using an in vitro model in which loss of the autophagy protein, LC3B, results in defective phagosome degradation and metabolic dysregulation, we show that lipid overload results in increased gasdermin cleavage, IL-1 β release, lipid accumulation and decreased oxidative capacity. The addition of LGM2605 resulted in enhanced mitochondrial capacity, decreased lipid accumulation and amelioration of IL-1 β release in a model of defective lipid homeostasis. Collectively, these studies suggest that lipid overload decreases mitochondrial function and increases the inflammatory response, with LGM2605 acting as a protective agent. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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