The Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 Complex Regulates IL-1RA Secretion in Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Accelerate Wound Healing
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of secreting exosomes, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether MSCs use a specific exocytotic fusion mechanism to secrete exosomes and cytokines. We show that Fas binds with Fas-associated phosphatase–1 (Fap-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to activate a common soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion mechanism to release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in MSCs. Moreover, we reveal that MSCs produce and secrete interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) associated with sEVs to maintain rapid wound healing in the gingiva via the Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 cascade. Tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α) serves as an activator to up-regulate Fas and Fap-1 expression via the nuclear factor κB pathway to promote IL-1RA release. This study identifies a previously unknown Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 axis that regulates SNARE-mediated sEV and IL-1RA secretion in stem cells, which contributes to accelerated wound healing.