Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Bone Regenerative Capacity is Regulated by Site-Specific Multi-Lineage Differentiation
mesenchymal stem cells
Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising therapies in dentistry due to their multipotent properties. Selecting donor MSCs is crucial because beagle dogs (canines) commonly used in pre-clinical studies have shown variable outcomes and it is unclear whether canine MSCs (cMSCs) are skeletal site-specific. This study tested whether jaw and long bone cMSCs have disparate in vitro and in vivo multilineage differentiation capabilities. Study Design Primary cMSCs were isolated from mandible (M-cMSCs) and femur (F-cMSCs) of four healthy Beagle dogs. Femur served as non-oral control. Clonogenic and proliferative abilities were assessed. In vitroosteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and neural multilineage differentiation were correlated with in vivobone regeneration and potential for clinical applications. Results M-cMSCs displayed two-fold increase in clonogenic and proliferative capacities relative to F-cMSCs (p =0.006). M-cMSCs in vitro osteogenesis based on alkaline phosphatase (p =0.04), bone sialoprotein (p =0.05), and osteocalcin (p =0.03), as well as adipogenesis (p =0.007), and chondrogenesis (p =0.009) were relatively higher and correlated with enhanced M-cMSC bone regenerative capacity. Neural expression markers, nestin and βIII-tubulin were not significantly different. Conclusions The enhanced differentiation and bone regenerative capacity of mandible MSCs may make them favorable donor graft materials for site-specific jaw bone regeneration.