MicroRNA-10a Regulation of Proinflammatory Phenotype in Athero-susceptible Endothelium in Vivo and in Vitro
A chronic proinflammatory state precedes pathological change in arterial endothelial cells located within regions of susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Thepotential contributions of regulatory microRNAs to this disequilibrium were investigated by artery site-specific profiling in normal adult swine. Expression of endothelial microRNA10a (miR-10a) was lower in the athero-susceptible regions of the inner aortic arch and aorto-renal branches than elsewhere. Expression of Homeobox A1 (HOXA1), a known miR-10a target, was up-regulated in the same locations. Endothelial transcriptome microarray analysis of miR-10a knockdown in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) identified IκB/NF-κB–mediated inflammation as the top category of up-regulated biological processes. Phosphorylation of IκBα, a prerequisite for IκBα proteolysis and NF-κB activation, was significantly up-regulated in miR-10a knockdown HAEC and was accompanied by increased nuclear expression of NF-κB p65. The inflammatory biomarkers monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-6, IL-8, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin were elevated following miR-10a knockdown. Conversely, knockin of miR- 10a (a conservative 25-fold increase) inhibited the basal expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in HAEC. Two key regulators of IκBα degradation— mitogen-activated kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7; TAK1) and β-transducin repeat-containing gene (βTRC)—contain a highly conserved miR-10a binding site in the 3′ UTR. Bothmolecules were up-regulated by miR-10a knockdown and suppressed by miR-10a knockin, and evidence of direct miR-10a binding to the 3′ UTRwas demonstrated by luciferase assay. Comparative expression studies of endothelium located in athero-susceptible aortic arch and athero-protected descending thoracic aorta identified significantly up-regulated MAP3K7, βTRC, phopho-IκBα, and nuclear p65 expression suggesting that the differential expression of miR-10a contributes to the regulation of proinflammatory endothelial phenotypes in athero-susceptible regions in vivo.