Challenges to the Citadel: A Brief Overview of Recent Trends in Canadian Corporate Governance
Politicians, bureaucrats, owners, managers and employees are becoming increasingly concerned with the capacity of Canadian corporations to survive and prosper in the twenty-first century. By and large, the attention focused on competitiveness has developed from the rapid international integration of goods, capital and service markets. This integration has resulted in the creation of a new borderless world, in which consumer preferences reign supreme and in which those corporations that fail to anticipate, shape and respond to these preferences with cost- and quality-competitive products face certain failure. Concern over the survival of national firms commands widespread societal attention because of the dependency of many core public policies on the economic surplus generated by robust private markets. Given the focus on globalization and competitiveness, it is not at all surprising that academics have expended considerable energy identifying and analyzing the determinants of national economic success in this new international order. Although the composition of the basket of favoured policies varies from scholar to scholar, most accord at least some importance to the quality of the system of corporate governance that obtains in a given country. Tracking the modern use of this term, most scholars look beyond the mere operation of a firm's formal governance apparatus (i. e., the board of directors) and consider how a wide range of market (e.g., capital, product, managerial and takeover markets), legal (e.g., derivative and personal suits) and political (e.g., shareholder voting) devices combine to discipline managerial behaviour.