Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



This working paper was published in a journal:

Hannum, Emily, Xiaoying Liu, and Fan Wang. 2021. "Estimating the Effects of Educational System Consolidation: The Case of China's Rural School Closure Initiative." Economic Development and Cultural Change 70(1):485-528.


Global trends of fertility decline, population aging, and rural outmigration are creating pressures to consolidate school systems, with the rationale that economies of scale will enable higher quality education to be delivered in an efficient manner, despite longer travel distances for students. Yet, few studies have considered the implications of system consolidation for educational access and inequality, outside of the context of developed countries. We estimate the impact of educational infrastructure consolidation on educational attainment using the case of China’s rural primary school closure policies in the early 2000s. We use data from a large household survey covering 728 villages in 7 provinces, and exploit variation in villages’ year of school closure and children’s ages at closure to identify the causal impact of school closure. For girls exposed to closure during their primary school ages, we find an average decrease of 0.60 years of schooling by 2011, when children’s mean age was 17 years old. Negative effects strengthen with time since closure. For boys, there is no corresponding significant effect. Different effects by gender may be related to greater sensitivity of girls’ enrollment to distance and greater responsiveness of boys’ enrollment to quality.


We gratefully acknowledge support from Penn’s University Research Foundation and School of Arts and Sciences Research Opportunity Grant Programs, support from Grand Challenges Canada (PI: Jere Behrman), and support from the Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation (Scholar Grant GS040-A-18) for coverage of Wang’s time.


China, school closure, education infrastructure, rural education



Date Posted: 31 March 2022