Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Patrick J. Walsh
Tandem methods for the catalytic asymmetric preparation of enantioenriched β-hydroxy (E)-enamines and cyclopropylamines are presented. The diastereoselective hydrogenation of enantioenriched (E)-trisubstituted hydroxy enamines to generate 1,2-disubstituted 1,3-amino alcohols is also outlined. These methods are initiated by highly regioselective hydroboration of N-tosyl substituted ynamides with diethylborane to generate β-amino alkenyl boranes. In situ boron to zinc transmetalation generates β-amino alkenyl zinc reagents. These functionalized vinylzinc intermediates were subsequently added to aldehydes in the presence of catalyst derived from an enantioenriched amino alcohol (morpholino isoborneol, MIB). The catalyst promotes highly enantioselective C–C bond-formation to provide β-hydroxy enamines in good isolated yields (68–86%) with 54–98% enantioselectivity. The intermediate zinc β-alkoxy enamines can be subjected to a tandem cyclopropanation to afford amino cyclopropyl carbinols with three continuous stereocenters in a one-pot procedure with good yields (72–82%), enantioselectivities of 76–94% and diastereomeric ratios >20:1. Diastereoselective hydrogenation of isolated enantioenriched β-hydroxy enamines over Pd/C furnished syn-1,2-disubstituted-1,3-amino alcohols with high yields (82–90%) and moderate to excellent diastereoselectivities. These methods were used in an efficient preparation of the enantioenriched precursor to PRC200-SS derivatives, which are potent serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors. A simple and efficient method to convert aldehydes into α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with a two-carbon homologation is presented. Hydroboration of ethoxy acetylene with BH3•SMe2 generates tris(ethoxyvinyl) borane. Transmetallation with diethylzinc, addition to aldehydes or ketones, and acidic workup affords enals. When the addition is quenched with anilinium hydrochloride, 1,2-dithioglycol, or acetic anhydride the unsaturated imine, dithiolane, or 1,1-diacetate is isolated in high yield. These transformations can be carried out in a one-pot procedure.
Valenta, Petr, "β-Hetero Vinylzinc Reagents: Versatile Precursors for a Broad Spectrum of High Impact Chemicals" (2010). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 289.