Complying with Title IX: An examination of the effects on three NCAA Division III colleges in Pennsylvania and the difficulties the law's interpretation has created for small colleges attempting to achieve gender equity

David Taylor Hooks, University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

This thesis explores the effects of Title IX law and the issues surrounding its implementation on three small liberal arts colleges in Pennsylvania, all members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III. The research focused on how these schools have dealt with Title IX issues, especially those that impacted negatively on them. The Athletic Directors and Coaches at the three colleges received questionnaires followed by phone conversations with all respondents and an on-sight visit to each campus for data collection. The following conclusions were reached: First, each college's reputation for academic integrity, excellence and their success in women's athletics, in particular, suggested that they were proactive in creating equal athletic opportunities for women. Second, the differences between Division I and III schools' reasons for competing and the resources allowed each by the NCAA created a direct conflict between D-III NCAA rules and Title IX law. Third, the current interest of women in collegiate competition appears to differ in intensity from that of men at the nonscholarship, D-III level. This draws into question the reliability of proportionality as a measure of compliance. Finally, the OCR and NCAA should work together to: one, establish an effective, yet flexible enough for all NCAA Divisions, definition of compliance, which effectively accounts for the numbers of football players; and two, provide a forum and the necessary pressure, outside of the Federal Courts, to bring schools into compliance.

Subject Area

Physical education|School administration

Recommended Citation

Hooks, David Taylor, "Complying with Title IX: An examination of the effects on three NCAA Division III colleges in Pennsylvania and the difficulties the law's interpretation has created for small colleges attempting to achieve gender equity" (1998). Dissertations available from ProQuest. AAI9913306.
https://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI9913306

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