The effect of guided imagery on the personality trait of time competence/incompetence

Murray Needleman, University of Pennsylvania


The purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of guided imagery on time competence and anxiety. Stress, anger, fear, and hopelessness affect the immune system and consequently our sense of physical and emotional well being. Since time competence (present awareness) is connected in other studies with positive outcomes, any method that enhances this variable may have valuable potential as an important clinical tool. A sample of 90 students were used in this study. Measure included the Personal Orientation Inventory and the STAI-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A semi-structured questionnaire was also utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was not a significant change in POI scores from pre-test to post-test, and that type of treatment did not significantly change POI scores. There was a significant drop in anxiety scores after each treatment, regardless of the treatment used. The effect of the anxiety reduction was not long-lasting. The responses to the questionnaire suggested that the subjects noticed themselves in a potentially new and different way than they were accustomed to. Statements indicated that the imagery and music experiences could help one to think and relax, therefore having strong implications for learning how to become more present and less anxious. It was suggested that the two major themes of the study, time-competence and anxiety reduction were aspects of lifestyle and personal commitment. Implications for further research suggested that a more systematic set of methods needs to be developed to help people become more time-competent. The implications for further practice, not only required a deeper knowledge of possible interventions, but also a greater understanding of living more fully in the moment or time-competence.

Subject Area

Psychotherapy|Immunology|Mental health|Cognitive therapy|Personality

Recommended Citation

Needleman, Murray, "The effect of guided imagery on the personality trait of time competence/incompetence" (1997). Dissertations available from ProQuest. AAI9727014.