Diffusion and phase transformation behavior in poly-synthetically-twinned (PST) titanium-aluminum/titanium diffusion couple

Ling Pan, University of Pennsylvania


Motivated by the great potential applications of gamma titanium aluminide based alloys and the important effect of diffusion on the properties of γ-TiAl/α2-Ti3Al two-phase lamellar structure, we conduct this thesis research to explore the microstructural evolution and interdiffusion behavior, and their correlations in multi-phase solid state diffusion couples made up of pure titanium and polysynthetically-twinned (PST) Ti-49.3 at.% Al “single” crystal, in the temperature range of 973–1173 K. The diffusion couples are prepared by high vacuum hot-pressing, with the diffusion direction parallel to the lamellar planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are employed to observe the microstructure at various interfaces/interphases. A reaction zone (RZ) of polycrystalline α 2-Ti3Al phase forms along the PST Ti-Al/Ti bonding interface having a wavy interface with the PST crystal and exhibits deeper penetration in α2 lamellae, consisting of many fine α2 and secondary γ laths, than in primary γ lamellae. Direct measurement of the RZ thickness on SEM back-scattered electron images reveals a parabolic growth of the RZ, indicating a macroscopically diffusion-controlled growth. Concentration profiles from Ti, through the RZ, into the α2 lamellae of the PST crystal are measured by quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). A plateau of composition adjacent to the RZ/(mixed α2 lath in PST) interface forms in the deeply penetrated RZ grains, implying a diffusion barrier crossing the interface and some extent of interface control in the RZ grain growth. The interdiffusion coefficient is evaluated both independent of composition and as a function of composition. No significant concentration dependence of the interdiffusion coefficients is observed using Boltzmann-Matano analysis. The temperature dependence of the interdiffusion coefficients obeys the Arrhenius relationship with a pre-exponential factor of D 0 = (7.56 ± 7.14) × 10−5 m2/s and an activation enthalpy of Q = [special characters omitted] kJ/mol = (2.65 ± 0.09) eV/atom. The initial nucleation stage of the RZ grains plays an important role in the later microstructural evolution as does the local mass balance. The interfacial energy and the strain energy in the deeply penetrated RZ grains are possible reasons for the plateau.

Subject Area

Materials science|Metallurgy

Recommended Citation

Pan, Ling, "Diffusion and phase transformation behavior in poly-synthetically-twinned (PST) titanium-aluminum/titanium diffusion couple" (2002). Dissertations available from ProQuest. AAI3073040.