Departmental Papers (Dental)

Document Type


Date of this Version


Publication Source

Journal of Clinical Medicine





Start Page

Article number 5950




For restorations on teeth involving invasion of the supracrestal tissue attachment (biological width), as well as for lack of ferrule effect, crown lengthening is required for long-term periodontal health and success of the restoration. In the same fashion, site development is often necessary prior to implant placement in order to provide optimal peri-implant soft and hard tissue architecture conducive to future esthetics and function. Orthodontic extrusion, also known as forced eruption, has been developed and employed clinically to serve the purposes of increasing the clinical crown length, correcting the periodontal defect, and developing the implant site. In order to provide comprehensive guidance on the clinical usage of this technique and maximize the outcome for patients who receive the dental restoration, the currently available literatures were summarized and discussed in the current review. Compared to traditional crown lengthening surgery, forced eruption holds advantages of preserving supporting bone, providing improved esthetics, limiting the involvement of adjacent teeth, and decreasing the negative impact on crown-to-root ratio compared to the traditional resective approach. As a non-invasive and natural technique capable of increasing the available volume of bone and soft tissue, forced eruption is also an attractive and promising option for implant site development. Both fixed and removable appliances can be used to achieve the desired extrusion, but patient compliance is a primary limiting factor for the utilization of removable appliances. In summary, forced eruption is a valuable treatment adjunct for patients requiring crown lengthening or implant restorations. Nonetheless, comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning are required for appropriate case selection based upon the known indications and contraindications for each purpose; major contraindications include inflammation, ankylosis, hypercementosis, vertical root fracture, and root proximity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the long-term stability of orthodontically extruded teeth and the supporting bone and soft tissue that followed them. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Crown lengthening, Forced eruption, Implant site development, Orthodontic extrusion, Restoration



Date Posted: 10 February 2023

This document has been peer reviewed.