Date of this Version
Plant derived oral green vaccines eliminate expenses associated with fermenters, purification, cold storage/transportation and sterile delivery. Green vaccines are expressed via the plant nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Chloroplast expression has advantages of hyper-expression of therapeutic proteins (10,000 copies of trans-gene per cell), efficient oral delivery and transgene containment via maternal inheritance. To date, 23 vaccine antigens against 16 different bacterial, viral or protozoan pathogens have been expressed in chloroplasts. Mice subcutaneously immunized with the chloroplast derived anthrax protective antigen conferred 100% protection against lethal doses of the anthrax toxin. Oral immunization (ORV) of F1-V antigens without adjuvant conferred greater protection (88%) against 50-fold lethal dose of aerosolized plague (Yersinia pestis) than subcutaneous (SQV) immunization (33%). Oral immunization of malarial vaccine antigens fused to the cholera antigen (CTB-AMA1/CTB-Msp1) conferred prolonged immunity (50% life span), 100% protection against cholera toxin challenge and inhibited proliferation of the malarial parasite. Protection was correlated with antigen-specific titers of intestinal, serum IgA & IgG1 in ORV and only IgG1 in SQV mice, but no other immunoglobulin. High level expression in edible plant chloroplasts ideal for oral delivery and long-term immunity observed should facilitate development of low cost human vaccines for large populations, at times of outbreak.
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Human Vaccines on July 23, 2009, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/10.4161/hv.8247
chloroplast genetic engineering, plant vaccine, infectious diseases, autoimmune, cholera, malaria, anthrax, plague, diabetes, HIV
Davoodi-Semiromi, A., Samson, N., & Daniell, H. (2009). The Green Vaccine: A Global Strategy to Combat Infectious and Autoimmune Diseases. Human Vaccines, 5 (7), 488-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.8247
Date Posted: 01 March 2022
This document has been peer reviewed.