Departmental Papers (Dental)

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Journal Article

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Plant Biotechnology Journal





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The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic‐resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant‐based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant‐based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant‐based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field.

Copyright/Permission Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Shahid, N., & Daniell, H. (2016). Plant‐based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non‐zoonotic diseases. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 14(11), 2079–2099., which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving


Livestock, molecular farming, oral delivery, animal diseases, veterinary vaccines

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Dentistry Commons



Date Posted: 01 March 2022

This document has been peer reviewed.