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The teleprogramming paradigm has been proposed as a means to efficiently perform teleoperation in the subsea environment via an acoustical link. In such a system the effects of both limited bandwidth channels and delayed communications are overcome by transmitting not Cartesian or joint level information but rather symbolic, error-tolerant, program instructions to the remote site. The operator interacts with a virtual reality of the remote site which provides immediate visual and kinesthetic feedback. The uncertainty in this model can be reduced based on information received from the slave manipulator's tactile contact with the environment. It is suggested that the current state of the model be made available to the operator via a graphical display which shows not only the position of objects at the remote site but also, through the use of color clues, the uncertainty associated with those positions. The provision of uncertainty information is important since it allows the operator to compromise between speed and accuracy. An additional operator aid, which we term synthetic fixturing, is proposed. Synthetic fixtures provide the operator of the teleprogramming system with the teleoperation equivalent of the "snap" commands common in computer aided design programs. By guiding the position and/or orientation of the master manipulator toward specific points, lines or planes the system is able to increase both the speed and precision with which the operator can control the slave arm without requiring sophisticated hardware.
Craig Sayers, Richard P. Paul, and Max Mintz, "Operating Interaction and Teleprogramming for Subsea Manipulation", . November 1992.
Date Posted: 15 August 2007