Departmental Papers (CBE)

Document Type

Technical Report

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Publication Source

PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)





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The clinical use of metallic expandable intravascular stents has resulted in imporved therapeutic outcomes for coronary artery disease. However, arterial reobstruction after stenting, in-stent restenosis, remains an important problem. Gene therapy to treat in-stent restenosis by using gene vector delivery from the metallic stent surfaces has never been demonstrated. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that metal-biphosphonate binding can enable site-specific gene vector delivery from metal surfaces. Polyallylamine biphosphonate (PAA-BP) was synthesized by using Michael addition methodology. Exposure to aqueous solutions of PAA-BP resulted in the formation of a monomolecular biphosphonate later on metal alloy surfaces (steel, nitinol, and cobalt-chromium), as demonstrated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface-bound PAA-BP enabled adenoviral (Ad) tethering due to covalent thiol-binding of either anti-Ad antibody or a recombinant Ad-receptor protein, D1. In arterial smooth muscle cell cultures, alloy samples configured with surface-tethered Ad were demonstrated to achieve site-specific transduction with a reporter gene, (GFP). Rat carotid stent angioplasties using metal stents exposed to aqueous PAA-BP and derivatized with anti-knob antibody or D1 resulted in extensive localized Ad-GFP expression in the arterial wall. In a separate study with a model therapeutic vector, Ad-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) attached to the biphosphonate-treated metal stent surface via D1, significant inhibition of restenosis was demonstrated (neointimal/media ration 1.68 ± 0.27 and 3.4 ± 0.35; Ad-iNOS vs. control, P < 0.01). Is is concluded that effective gene vector delivery from metallic stent surfaces can be achieved using this approach.

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© 2006 National Academy of Sciences.


gene therapy, local delivery, restenosis



Date Posted: 01 December 2017

This document has been peer reviewed.