Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

5-31-2011

Publication Source

PLoS ONE

Volume

6

Issue

5

Start Page

e17513

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0017513

Abstract

Background

In 2005 a cluster of 53 HIV-infected patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) was detected in the Msinga sub-district, the catchment area for the Church of Scotland Hospital (CoSH) in Tugela Ferry, in KwaZulu-Natal province (KZN), South Africa. KZN is divided into 11 healthcare districts. We sought to determine the distribution of XDR TB cases in the province in relation to population density.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the KZN tuberculosis laboratory database was analysed. Results of all patients with a sputum culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis from January 2006 to June 2007 were included. Drug-susceptibility test results for isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ofloxacin were available for all patients as well as the location of the hospital where their clinical diagnosis was made.

Findings

In total, 20858 patients attending one of 73 hospitals or their adjacent clinics had cultures positive for M. tuberculosis. Of these, 4170 (20%) were MDR-TB cases. Four hundred and forty three (11%) of the MDR tuberculosis cases displayed the XDR tuberculosis susceptibility profile. Only 1429 (34%) of the MDR-TB patients were seen at the provincial referral hospital for treatment. The proportion of XDR-TB amongst culture-confirmed cases was highest in the Msinga sub-district (19.6%), followed by the remaining part of the Umzinyati district (5.9%) and the other 10 districts (1.1%). The number of hospitals with at least one XDR-TB case increased from 18 (25%) to 58 (80%) during the study period.

Interpretation

XDR-TB is present throughout KZN. More than 65% of all diagnosed MDR-TB cases, including XDR-TB patients, were left untreated and likely remained in the community as a source of infection.

Copyright/Permission Statement

© 2011 Moodley et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Keywords

HIV-infection, South Africa, KZN tuberculosis, Multidrug-resistant (MDR)

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Date Posted: 18 November 2014

This document has been peer reviewed.