Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

5-2010

Publication Source

The Review of Economics and Statistics

Volume

92

Issue

2

Start Page

284

Last Page

301

DOI

10.1162/rest.2010.11623

Abstract

Between 1972 and 1978 U.S. high schools rapidly increased their female athletic participation rates in order to comply with Title IX. This paper examines the causal implications of this expansion by using variation in the level of boys' athletic participation across states before Title IX to instrument for change in girls' athletic participation. Analysis of differences in outcomes across states in changes between pre- and postcohorts reveals that a 10 percentage point rise in state-level female sports participation generates a 1 percentage point increase in female college attendance and a 1 to 2 percentage point rise in female labor force participation.

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Date Posted: 27 November 2017

This document has been peer reviewed.