Departmental Papers (BE)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

December 2002


Throughout the world, there has been a move to "harmonize" exposure limits to radio-frequency (RF) energy from sources such as mobile phones, communications transmitters, radar, industrial equipment, and the like. "Harmonization", in practice, means the adoption of a consistent set of exposure limits in different nations around the world. Precautions taken in Italy are discussed, as are the Vatican radio transmitters, public controversy, health concerns, politics and the science involved.


Copyright 2002 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Volume 21, Issue 4, Winter 2002-2003, pages 23-27.
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Date Posted: 15 November 2004

This document has been peer reviewed.