Departmental Papers (ASC)

Document Type

Technical Report

Date of this Version


Publication Source

European Journal of Social Psychology




Blatant dehumanization has recently been demonstrated to predict negative outgroup attitudes and behaviors. Here, we examined blatant dehumanization of Muslim refugees during the ‘Refugee Crisis’ among large samples in four European countries: the Czech Republic (N = 1307), Hungary (N = 502), Spain (N = 1049), and Greece (N = 934). Our results suggest that blatant dehumanization of Muslim refugees is (a) prevalent among Europeans, and (b) uniquely associated with anti‐refugee attitudes and behavior, beyond political ideology, prejudice, and—of particular relevance to the refugee crisis—empathy. We also find that blatant dehumanization of Muslim refugees is significantly higher and more strongly associated with intergroup behavior in the Eastern European countries (especially the Czech Republic) than in Spain and Greece. Examining a range of outgroup targets beyond refugees, our results further illustrate that blatant dehumanization is not purely an ethnocentric bias: while individuals across contexts feel warmer towards their group than all others, they rate several high‐status outgroups as equally or more fully ‘evolved and civilized’ than the ingroup. Our research extends theoretical understanding of blatant dehumanization, and suggests that blatant dehumanization plays an important and independent role in the rejection of Muslim refugees throughout Europe.

Copyright/Permission Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Bruneau, E., Kteily, N., & Laustsen, L. The unique effects of blatant dehumanization on attitudes and behavior towards Muslim refugees during the European 'refugee crisis' across four countries. European Journal of Social Psychology. Published online ahead of inclusion in an issue] which has been published in final form at

This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving [link to


dehumanization, empathy, refugees, Islamophobia

Embargo Date




Date Posted: 15 June 2018

This document has been peer reviewed.