Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
Social norms play an important role in individual decision making. Bicchieri (2006) argues that two different expectations influence our choice to obey a norm: what we expect others to do (empirical expectations) and what we believe others think we ought to do (normative expectations). Little is known about the relative importance of these two types of expectation in individuals’ decisions, an issue that is particularly important when normative and empirical expectations are in conflict (e.g., systemic corruption, high crime cities). In this paper, we report data from Dictator game experiments where we exogenously manipulate dictators’ expectations in the direction of either selfishness or fairness. When normative and empirical expectations are in conflict, we find that empirical expectations about other dictators’ choices significantly predict a dictator’s own choice. However, dictators’ expectations regarding what other dictators think ought to be done do not have a significant impact on their decisions after controlling for empirical expectations. Our findings about the crucial influence of empirical expectations are important for designing institutions or policies aimed at discouraging undesirable behavior.
This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Bicchieri, C. and Xiao, E. (2009), Do the right thing: but only if others do so. J. Behav. Decis. Making, 22: 191–208. doi:10.1002/bdm.621, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdm.621. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
social norms, expectations, fairness, dictator game, decision making
Bicchieri, Cristina and Xiao, Erte, "Do the Right Thing: But Only if Others do so" (2008). Penn Social Norms Group. 2.
Date Posted: 22 February 2017