Departmental Papers (MSE)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

October 2005


Postprint version. Published in Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C: Polymer Reviews, Volume 45, Issue 5, October 2005, pages 351-373.
Publisher URL:


It is attractive to produce true three-dimensional (3D) microstructures both rapidly and economically over a large area with negligible defects for a wide range of applications. Multi-beam interference lithography is one of the promising techniques that can create periodic microstructures in polymers without extensive lithography and etching steps. This review discusses the formation of interference patterns, their dependence on beam parameters, the lithographic process, and the applications to the formation of photonic crystals. Various photoresist systems, including thick films of negative-tone and positive-tone photoresists, liquid resins, organic-inorganic hybrids, and holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, are also reviewed.


multi-beam interference, lithography, 2D and 3D microstructures, maskless, photoresist, negative-tone, positive-tone, organic-inorganic hybrids, holographic, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals



Date Posted: 10 November 2006

This document has been peer reviewed.